1. Marshal Mcluhan, “The Medium is the Message” in Understanding Media
  2. Nicholas Carr, “Introduction” in The Shallows
  3. Plato, The Phaedrus


  1. Walter Ong, “Orality of Language”
  2. Walter Ong, “Writing Restructures Consciousness”
  3. Walter Ong, “Print, Space, Closure”
  4. Nicholas Carr, “Tools of the Mind (C. 3)”, The Shallows
  5. Nicholas Carr, “The Deepening Page(C. 4)”, The Shallows
  6. Michelle Levy and Tom Mole, “Materiality”, in The Broadview Introduction to Book History


  1. Information Chapter 7
  2. Vannevar Bush, “As we may think”, The Atlantic
  3. Ted Nelson, “Hyperworld” in Chapter 0, Literary Machines, pp. 0/1-13
  4. Ted Nelson, “Hypertext” in Chapter 1, Literary Machines, pp. 1/14-19
  5. Ted Nelson, “2.1 An Electronic Literary System” in Chapter 2, Literary Machines, pp. 2/4-8
  6. Ted Nelson, “2.2 What is Literature?” in Chapter 2, Literary Machines, pp. 2/9-12
  7. Roland Barthes, “The Death of the Author”


  1. Sahle, Patrick. “Zwischen Mediengebundenheit Und Transmedialisierung.”” Editio 24 (2010): 23–36.
  2. De Rose, et al. “What is a Text Really”
  3. “The concept of a work in World Cat: An application of Frbr”
  4. “The Work (c. 1)” in FRBR before and after
  5. “The Model (c. 2)” in FRBR before and after


  1. Nicholas Carr, “The Very Image of a Book (C. 6)”, The Shallows
  2. Nicholas Carr, “The Juggler’s Brain (C. 7)”, The Shallows